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What is Breast Cancer

Breast cancer ocurs when some breast cells begin to grow abnormally. These cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do and continue to accumulate, forming a lump or mass. Cells may spread (metastasize) through your breast to your lymph or to other parts. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women. Breast cancer survival rates have increased, and the number of deaths associated with this disease is steadily declining, largely due to factors such as:

  • Earlier detection

  • New personalized approach to treatment

  • Better understanding of the disease


1 in 28

women is likely to develop breast cancer during her lifetime.

A Breast lump of thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue.

Change in the size, shape or appearance of the breast.

Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling.

Peeling, scaling, crusting or flaking of the pigmented are surrounding the nipple (areola) or breast skin.

Redness or pitting of the skin over the breast, like the skin of an orange.

A newly inverted nipple.


Precursor breast lesions
  • DCIS (Ductal carcinoma in situ)

  • LCIS (Lobular carcinoma in situ)

  • ADH (Atypical ductal hyperplasia)

  • ALH (Atypical lobular hyperplasia)

Invasive breast cancers

Invasive carcinoma of no special type

Invasive lobular carcinoma

Mucinous carcinoma

Tubular carcinoma

Invasive micropapillary carcinoma

Invasive papillary carcinoma

Medullary carcinoma

Metaplastic carcinoma

Adenoid cystic carcinoma

Risk Factors

Women are much more likely than men are to develop breast cancer.
Risk of breast cancer increases as you age.
Personal history of breast conditions.
Family history of breast cancer.
That increase cancer risk: Gene mutations BRCA1 & BRCA2.
Exposure to radiation increases risk of breast cancer.
Being obese increases your risk of breast cancer.
Beginning your period at a younger age before 12.
Women having childbirth after age 30.
Women never been pregant have a greater risk.
Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer.
5 to 10 percent of breast cancers arelinked to gene mutations.
Beginning menopause at an older age
Women taking hormone medications

Inherited breast cancer

  • About 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are linked to gene mutations passed through generations of a family. The most well-known are breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), both of which significantly increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancer.

  • PARP (poly-ADP ribose polymerase) is a protein found in our cells, helps damaged cells to repair themselves. In a cancer patient, PARP inhibitor stops PARP from doing its repair work and so the cancer cell dies. FDA approved Olaparib (PARP inhibitor) for the treatment of patients with germline BRCA-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer who have previously received chemotherapy. Our test BRCA1 & BRCA2 MUTATION DRUG PROFILING PANEL (N195) detects most of the mutations and insertions/deletions in the BRCA gene associated with Breast cancer.



Core needle biospy
Staging breast cancer
  • A core needle biopsy uses a long, hollow tube to extract a core of tissue.

  • Once your doctor has diagnosed your breast cancer, he or she works to establish the extent (stage) of your cancer.

  • A biopsy is the only definitive way to make a diagnosis of breast cancer. During a biopsy, your doctor uses a specialized needle device guided by X-ray or another imaging test to extract a core of tissue from the suspicious area. Often, a small metal marker is left at the site within your breast so the area can be easily identified on future imaging tests.

  • Your cancer's stage helps determine your prognosis and the best treatment options.

  • Biopsy samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis where experts determine whether the cells are cancerous.

  • Complete information about your cancer's stage may not be available until after you undergo breast cancer surgery.

Tests and procedures used to stage Breast Cancer

Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV with 0 indicating cancer that is noninvasive or contained within the milk ducts. Stage IV breast cancer, also called metastatic breast cancer, indicates cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.Breast cancer staging also takes into account your cancer's grade the presence of tumor markers, such as receptors for estrogen, progesterone and HER2 and proliferation factors.

Blood Tests
Breast MRI
Bone scan
CT scan
PET scan