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Kidney Disease -

Symptoms, Diagnosis, Test

The lungs are part of the respiratory system, a group of organs and tissues that work together to help one breathe.

Kidney Disease

Overview

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which your kidneys have been damaged and are no longer capable of filtering your blood and keeping you healthy. Most patients have no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. However, if your kidney disease progresses, wastes in your blood might build up and make you sick. High blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health, and nerve damage are all possible side effects. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs near the bottom of the rib cage that are in charge of:

  • Waste products, excess water, and other contaminants are filtered out of the bloodstream.
  • Keeping the body's pH, salt, and potassium levels in check.
  • Blood pressure and red blood cell production are both regulated.
  • Increasing calcium absorption by activating a type of vitamin D.

Symptoms

The symptoms listed below are early warning indications of renal disease:

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Fatigue & Muscle Cramps
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Trouble Sleeping
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Poor Appetite
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Edema
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Puffiness around the eyes
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Frequent Urination, especially late at night
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Decreased Mental Alertness
  • An accumulation of poisons and pollutants in the blood causes fatigue.
  • Sleep disturbances caused by a buildup of toxins in the bloodstream due to impaired renal function.
  • Reduced kidney function causes an accumulation of toxins and pollutants in the blood, resulting in a loss of appetite.
  • Electrolyte imbalances caused by impaired renal function cause muscle cramps.
  • Edema - Swollen feet, hands, and ankles caused by salt retention due to impaired kidney function.
  • Puffiness around the eyes due to a considerable amount of protein in the urine seeping from the kidneys.
  • When the kidneys are no longer able to sustain the proper balance of minerals and nutrients in the blood, the skin becomes dry and scaly.
  • Urination on a regular basis, especially late at night
  • Due to a buildup of toxins and pollutants in the blood, mental alertness is reduced.

Severe Symptoms May Include:

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Fatigue & Muscle Cramps
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Trouble Sleeping
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Poor Appetite
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Edema
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Puffiness around the eyes
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Frequent Urination, especially late at night
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Decreased Mental Alertness
  • Despite to a buildup of toxins and pollutants in the blood, nausea and vomiting occur.
  • Reduced kidney function causes an accumulation of toxins and pollutants in the blood, resulting in a loss of appetite.
  • Urine output changes
  • Swelling is a symptom of fluid retention, which is frequent in kidney illness.
  • Anemia (a lack of red blood cells) can lead to weakness and exhaustion.
  • In patients with kidney illness, decreased sex drive is fairly prevalent.
  • Potassium levels have suddenly risen.

Are you suffering from heart disease risk?

The following are the key risk factors for kidney disease:

  • Diabetes

    The most prevalent cause, which can harm the blood arteries in the kidneys.

  • Hypertension

    The second most common cause, can harm the blood arteries and filters in the kidneys.

  • Age

    People over the age of 60 are more likely to have this condition.

  • Family Historyof renal failure
  • Atherosclerosis

    promote kidney scarring by reducing blood flow.

  • Smoking

    is damaging to the kidneys and can hasten the progression of renal disease.

  • Obesity

    Increases the likelihood of developing significant chronic kidney disease risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension.

Types of Kidney Disease

Kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to operate normally.

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Chronic Kidney Disease
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Kidney Stones
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Glomerulonephritis
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Polycystics Kidney Disease
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Urinary Tract Infections
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Chronic kidney disease is a condition that causes a steady loss of kidney function over time and is caused primarily by diabetes, high blood pressure, and other illnesses.

    High blood pressure is harmful to the kidneys because it causes the glomeruli to be under more pressure. Glomeruli are small blood veins in the kidneys that purify the blood. The increased pressure destroys these veins over time, and kidney function begins to deteriorate.

    Diabetes is a significant factor to chronic renal disease. Over time, the elevated sugar level in the blood damage the blood vessels in the kidneys.

    Early detection and treatment can typically prevent the progression of chronic renal disease. When kidney disease continues, it can lead to renal failure, which necessitates dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to stay alive.

  • Kidney Stone

    Kidney stones arise when minerals and other chemicals in the blood crystallise and form solid masses in the kidneys (stones). Kidney stones are normally passed through the body by urination.

  • Glomerulonephritis

    Glomerulonephritis is a condition in which the glomeruli become inflamed. Glomeruli are tiny blood-filtering structures found inside the kidneys. Infections, medications, and congenital anomalies can all cause glomerulonephritis.

  • Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary illness in which the kidneys develop multiple cysts (small sacs of fluid). These cysts can induce renal failure by interfering with kidney function.

  • Urinary tract infections

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial infections of the urinary tract, which can affect any area of the body. The most prevalent infections are those of the bladder and urethra. These infections can spread to the kidneys and cause renal failure if not managed.

How is Kidney Disease Diagnosed?

Kidney disease is diagnosed using a variety of tests.

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

    The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test that determines how well the kidneys function. It calculates the amount of blood that goes through the glomeruli each minute. Glomeruli are tiny blood-filtering structures found inside the kidneys.

  • Urine Examination

    A urinalysis is a collection of physical, chemical, and microscopic tests performed on urine. Several chemicals in the urine are detected and measured by these tests, including glucose, protein, bilirubin, red blood cells, white blood cells, crystals, and bacteria.

  • Protein- Creatinine Ratio, Urine

    A urine protein test is frequently used to detect and diagnose early kidney disease by screening for, evaluating, and monitoring kidney function. The urine protein-creatinine ratio is a quick and easy way to measure and track proteinuria in people with chronic renal disease.

  • Microalbumin Creatinine Ratio

    This test can help people with early diabetes mellitus avoid or delay the onset of kidney damage.

  • Kidney Panel, KFT

    A kidney panel is a collection of tests that can be used to assess kidney function. The tests detect the concentrations of a variety of chemicals, including

    • Electrolytes: Chemicals that are electrically charged and are vital for regular bodily functions. Electrolytes include:
      • Potassium
      • Sodium
      • Chloride
    • Minerals, Chemicals that are electrically charged and necessary for proper bodily functions. Electrolytes include
      • Phosphorus, which is required for energy production, muscle and neuron function, and bone development.
      • Calcium is required for blood clotting and bone production and is necessary for the healthy functioning of muscles, neurons, and the heart.
    • Albumin
      a protein that prevents fluid from seeping out of blood arteries while also delivering hormones, vitamins, medicines, and ions such as calcium throughout the body.
    • Waste Product
      • Urea, a nitrogen-containing waste product created by protein metabolism
      • Creatinine, a nitrogen-containing waste product produced by the body's muscles. The kidneys remove almost all creatinine.
      • Uric Acid, a byproduct of protein synthesis.
    • Glucose
      provides the body with energy
    • A: G Ratio
      the calculated albumin-to-globulin ratio It could reveal the reason for the shift in protein levels.
  • Creatinine Clearance Test

    The glomerular filtration rate, or the ability of the kidneys to filter waste materials, is reflected in creatinine clearance. Creatinine clearance detects a mild decline in renal function. It also keeps track of how kidney disease is developing.

  • Urine Acid

    The ultimate result of protein metabolism is uric acid. The uric acid blood test is used to determine the source of recurrent kidney stones and to keep track of stone production in persons with gout.

  • Beta-2 Macroglobulin

    Beta-2 microglobulin is a protein that is located on the surface of nucleated cells and is involved in the immune system of humans. When known physical or suspected kidney damage occurs, the beta-2 microglobulin test can be utilised to distinguish between glomerular and tubular renal problems.

  • Vitamin D 1, 25-Dihydroxy

    Vitamin D is a group of chemicals that are necessary for the healthy development and growth of teeth and bones. The level of vitamin D in the blood is determined by this test. In kidney disease, a low level of 1,25-dihydroxy Vitamin D can be noticed, and it's one of the first symptoms to appear in those with early kidney failure.

  • Kidney scans

    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, computed tomography (CT) scan, or an ultrasound scan are all examples of kidney scans. The goal is to see if there are any obstructions in the urine flow. The size and structure of the kidneys can also be shown using these images.

  • Kidney biopsy

    A small sample of kidney tissue is analyzed and examined for any signs of cell damage. It is easier to make a precise diagnosis of kidney disease with the help of a renal tissue analysis.

How can Kidney disease be prevented?

Kidney disease can be avoided by taking the following steps:

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Drink Plenty of Water
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Control Blood Sugar
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Control Blood Pressure
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Reduce Salt Intake
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Quit Smoking
  • Drink plenty of water: to flush infection-causing bacteria out of your system.
  • Control blood sugar: is the most effective method to avoid or slow kidney damage.
  • Control blood pressure: High blood pressure might cause kidney injury.
  • Reduce salt intake: People with renal disease should avoid eating too much salt.
  • Quit smoking: Smoking is damaging to the kidneys and can hasten the progression of renal disease.
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