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Heart Disease -

Symptoms, Diagnosis, Test

The lungs are part of the respiratory system, a group of organs and tissues that work together to help one breathe.

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Overview

Any disorder that affects your heart, such as coronary artery disease, is referred as heart disease.

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Coronary Artery Disease
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Valvular Heart Disease
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Arrhythmia
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Cardiomyopathy
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Congenital Heart Defects
  • Coronary artery disease is a type of heart disease that affects the arteries. It is the most frequent form of cardiovascular disease.
  • Valvular Heart Disease is a type of heart disease that impairs the function of the valves that control blood flow into and out of the heart.
  • Arrhythmia that interferes with electrical transmission.
  • Cardiomyopathy is a condition that affects the way the heart muscles contract.
  • Heart problems that appear before birth are known as congenital heart defects.

Symptoms

The following are some of the most common heart disease symptoms:

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Chest Pain
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Shortness of Breath
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Sweating
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Nausea
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Irregular Heart Beat
  • Pain in the chest

    It's a pain that occurs when our heart receives less oxygen-rich blood. In your chest, you may feel pressure, crushing, or squeezing.

  • Breathing Problems

    Dyspnea, or shortness of breath, is an unpleasant condition in which it is difficult to get enough air into your lungs. Lung and heart problems can make it difficult to breathe.

  • Nausea

    A feeling of unease that makes you want to vomit. It can be an indication of a health problem if it lasts for a long time.

  • Sweating

    If you sweat more than normal without engaging in any physical activity or being in hot weather, it could be an early symptom of cardiac troubles.

  • Irregular Heartbeat is a condition in which the heart beat is irregular.

    It is a variation in heartbeat frequency that occurs when electrical signals are disrupted.

Are you suffering from heart disease risk?

The following factors can increase your risk of heart disease:

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Smoking
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Hypertension
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High Cholesterol
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Diabetes
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Family History of Heart Problems
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Obesity
  • Smoking

    The act or habit of inhaling and exhaling hazardous chemicals such as cigarettes or a drug's smoke.

  • Hypertension

    High blood pressure is another name for hypertension. It can cause serious health problems and raise the risk of heart disease, stroke, and even death.

  • Cholesterol levels are high.

    High blood cholesterol is a disorder induced by lifestyle factors such as diet, in which the levels of certain harmful fats, or lipids, in the blood are abnormally high.

  • Diabetes

    A condition in which the body's ability to create or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, leading to improper carbohydrate metabolism and high blood glucose levels.

  • Heart Diseases in the Family

    The term "heart disease in the family" is used to describe a family history of the disease.

  • Obesity

    The state of being significantly heavier than one's normal weight. Obesity has typically been defined as being more than 20% overweight of one's optimal weight.

Diagnosis

Heart disease is diagnosed using a variety of tests. The doctor may begin by inquiring about your medical history.

  • Medical history of the individual and family
  • Symptoms present and past
  • An ECG and laboratory tests are performed.

Additional tests may be required based on the results of the evaluation and testing.

Laboratory Test

Blood tests are used to detect the risk of heart disease as well as to check other body systems that can affect your cardiovascular health. Important Blood Tests for Heart Disease Diagnosis

Lipid Profile

The test measures the amount and type of lipids (fats) in the blood to determine the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The tests include:

  • Total Cholesterol
  • LDL Cholesterol
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Lipoprotein (a); Lp(a)

    The test is used to detect high levels of Lipoprotein (a), a kind of cholesterol carrier in the blood. The test assesses the likelihood of cardiovascular disease developing (CVD).

  • C-reactive protein (CRP)

    C-reactive protein is a type of anti-inflammatory protein (CRP). The liver produces C-reactive protein (CRP) as part of the body's response to damage or infection. The test detects inflammation due to acute diseases, monitors the severity of disease in chronic conditions, and aids in the creation of an overall picture of heart health by measuring the amount of CRP in the blood.

  • Homocysteine

    Homocysteine is a substance that helps the body develop and maintain tissue. Too much homocysteine, on the other hand, may raise the risk of heart disease and stroke. This test is usually ordered if you have a high risk of developing heart disease or have a family history of heart disease. It is also used for cases of family history of heart disease but no other known risk factors.

  • HsCRP

    A new age test has been developed to assess the risk of heart attack and stroke. It reliably assesses modest but chronic inflammation in the body, which is linked to Atherosclerosis.

  • CK-MB

    Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) is an enzyme that is mostly found in cardiac muscle cells. This test detects the presence of CK-MB in the blood. Only when the heart is damaged will considerable levels of CK-MB be present.

  • Troponin-T,I(High Sensitive)

    The purpose of high-sensitivity troponin tests is to help diagnose a heart attack and rule out other illnesses that have similar signs and symptoms. Troponin levels in the blood can rise within 3 to 6 hours after a heart attack and can stay high for 10 to 14 days.

  • BNP and NT-proBNP

    The body produces B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in reaction to heart failure. BNP and NT-proBNP tests diagnose and evaluate heart failure by measuring their levels in the blood.

  • APOLIPOPROTEINS A1 & B

    The primary protein component of HDL, or "good cholesterol," is Apo A-1. The major protein linked to LDL, or "bad cholesterol," is Apo B. Apo A-1 and Apo B are stronger markers of cardiovascular disease risk than LDL cholesterol and other factors (CVD).

Blood Tests for Other Body Systems

  • CBC: Stands for complete blood count, which includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • Potassium and sodium levels: Sodium and potassium levels aid in the detection of electrolyte imbalances in the body fluids.
  • Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen: Kidney function is assessed by measuring blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels.
  • Fasting Glucose: To diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes, a fasting glucose test is used.
  • TSH: Thyroid function is assessed by measuring TSH.

Non Invasive Tests

  • Electrocardiogram

    Stands for complete blood count, which includes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

  • Stress EKG

    Stress tests are used to see how the heart reacts to physical stress, such as running on a treadmill. While exercising, the EKG wires record electrical impulses from the heart as well as blood pressure.

  • Thallium Scan

    It entails a treadmill stress test and a nuclear camera scan of the heart following the injection of a radioactive substance. It determines how much blood the heart muscle receives at rest and during exercise.

  • Carotid Ultrasound

    The risk of stroke is assessed using carotid ultrasonography. A transducer is a tiny probe that is gently pressed against the sides of the neck to convey images of the arteries to a computer screen. It monitors blood flow through the carotid arteries on both sides of the neck to assess for Stenosis.

  • Holter Monitor

    A Holter monitor records your EKG in real time as you go about your regular activities. It can detect arrhythmias that might otherwise go undetected on a resting EKG.

Invasive Tests

Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angiography Cardiac catheterization is a commonly used procedure for diagnosing heart problems. It's also used to treat heart disease by using balloon angioplasty and stent implantation to open clogged arteries. It aids the doctor in determining if

  • The heart's blood arteries have narrowed.
  • The heart beats regularly.
  • The heart's valves are in good working order.
  • There are any congenital heart abnormalities.
  • The cardiac and pulmonary pressures are both normal.