NABL | ICMR Accredited Lab | ICMR Reg. No.: CNCPLDD
powered by | 7519071907
All You Need to Know About Diabetes

All You Need to Know About Diabetes

May 2022

Diabetes is a long-term illness that affects the way your body converts food into energy. The majority of the food you consume is converted to sugar (also known as glucose) and released into your bloodstream.

Diabetes is a disease in which the body's ability to process blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is impaired. There are several types of diabetes, each with its own set of treatment options.

Diabetes mellitus, or diabetes, is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels. Insulin transports sugar from the bloodstream into your cells, where it is stored or used for energy. Your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use the insulin it does make effectively if you have diabetes. Diabetes-related high blood sugar can harm your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs if left untreated.

Read also: Understanding the appropriate time to schedule a kidney function test


The severity of diabetes symptoms varies depending on how high your blood sugar is. Some people, particularly those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not have any symptoms at all. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes tend to appear quickly and are more severe.

The following are some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes:

  • Thirst increases
  • Urination on a regular basis
  • Hunger to the point of death
  • Weight loss that isn't explained
  • Ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of muscle and fat breakdown that occurs when there isn't enough insulin available)
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Vision is hazy
  • Sores that take a long time to heal
  • Infections that occur frequently, such as gum or skin infections, as well as vaginal infections

Men's Symptoms

Men with diabetes may experience decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction (ED), and poor muscle strength, in addition to the general symptoms of diabetes.

Women's Symptoms

Urinary tract infections, yeast infections, and dry, itchy skin are all symptoms of diabetes in women.

What is causing my blood glucose level to be so high? What causes this to happen?

Breaking down the food you eat into various nutrient sources is part of the digestion process. When you eat carbohydrates (like bread, rice, or pasta), your body converts them to sugar (glucose). When glucose enters your bloodstream, it requires assistance a key to reach its final destination, which is inside your body's cells (cells make up your tissues and organs). Insulin is the helper or key.

Read also: Why it is important to have an annual health check-up?

What are the different types of diabetes?

The following are the different types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means your body is attacking itself. The insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed in this case. Type 1 diabetes affects up to 10% of people with diabetes. It's most commonly found in children and young adults (but can develop at any age).

Type 2 diabetes occurs when your body either does not produce enough insulin or when your cells do not respond to insulin properly. Diabetes mellitus is the most common form of the disease. Type 2 diabetes affects up to 95% of diabetics. It usually affects people in their 40s and 50s.

Prediabetes is the stage before Type 2 diabetes develops. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough for Type 2 diabetes to be diagnosed.

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops in some women during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually disappears after the birth of a child. If you have gestational diabetes, however, you're more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes later in life.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

Your glucose level in a blood test is used to diagnose and manage diabetes. Fasting glucose test, random glucose test, and A1c test are the three tests that can be used to determine your blood glucose level.

  • Fasting plasma glucose test: This test is done in the morning after eight hours of fasting.
  • Random plasma glucose test: This test can be done at any time without the need to fasting
  • A1c test: This test is also known as HbA1c or glycated hemoglobin test, which provides your average blood glucose level over the past two to three months. This test measures the amount of glucose attached to hemoglobin, the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test: In this test, the blood glucose level is first measured after an overnight fast. You have to drink a sugary drink. After that your blood glucose level is then checked at hours 2 hours.
  • Gestational diabetes tests: When you are pregnant there are two blood glucose tests. With a glucose challenge test, you have to drink a sugary liquid and your glucose level is checked two hours later. Fasting is not required. If this test shows a higher than normal level of glucose (over 140 mL/dL), an oral glucose tolerance test will be followed.
  • Type 1 diabetes: If the healthcare provider suspects that you have type 1 diabetes then blood and urine samples will be collected and tested. The blood is checked for autoantibodies which means an autoimmune sign that your body is attacking itself. The urine is checked for the presence of ketones (a sign your body is burning fat as its energy supply). These signs indicate Type 1 diabetes.

Type of test







Fasting glucose test

Less than 100


126 or higher

Random (anytime) glucose test


Less than 140


200 or higher

A1c Test

Less than 5.7%


6.5 or higher

Oral glucose tolerance test

Less than 140


200 or higher


If you or your child or adolescent develop symptoms of diabetes, get checked it as soon as possible.

CNC Pathlab Diabetes tests can be scheduled because we have a team of experienced health professionals who have access to cutting-edge technology. CNC Pathlab is your trustworthy medical laboratory, with a large customer base that values accurate test results. Get quick results at the best prices in the industry.